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Brief History of gujrat

Brief History of gujrat

Gujrat (URDU), is a district of Punjab Province in Pakistan.

Gujrat is an ancient district located in between two famous rivers, the Jhelum and Chenab. It is bounded on the northeast by Mirpur, on the northwest by the River Jhelum which separates it from Jhelum District, on the east and southeast by the Chenab River, separating it from the districts of Gujranwala and Sialkot, and on the West by Mandi Bahauddin. District Gujrat is spread over an area of 3,192 square kilometres, and it includes historic villages and towns such as Jalalpur Jattan, Chakdina, Karnana,Kunjah and Lalamusa.

 

Ancient history

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

Gujrat town itself is a place of some antiquity, and the district bounds in ancient sites.The district formed part of the kingdom of Porus, who was defeated by Alexander, probably in the Karri plain beyond the Jammu border, in July, 326 B.C. ; but four years later was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya in the national rising which took place on the death of Alexander. It remained under the Mauryas until shortly after the death of Ashoka in 231, and about forty years later came under the sway of Demetrius the Graeco-Bactrian. The overthrow of the Bactrians by the Parthians in the latter half of the second century brought another change of rulers, and the coins of the Indo-Parthian Maues (c. 120 B. c.), who is known to local tradition as Raja Moga, have been found at Mong. At the end of the first century A. D., ie whole of the Punjab was conquered by the Yueh-chi. For several hundred years nothing is known of the history of the District, except that between 455 and 540 it must have been exposed to the ravages of the White Huns. Dr. Stein holds that the District formed part of the kingdom of Gurjara, which, according to the Rajatarangini, was invaded between 883 and 902 by Sankara Varman of Kashmir, who defeated its king Alakhana. This may be the Ali Khan to whom tradition ascribed the refounding of GUJRAT.

However the foundation of the capital, Gujrat, according to the Ancient Geography of India:

is ascribed to a king named Bachan Pal of whom nothing more is known ; and its restoration is attributed to Ali Khan, whose name is strangely like that of Alakhana, the Raja of Gurjara, who was defeated by Sangkara Varmma between AD 883 AD 901.

Lodhi-Mughal era

Gujrat district was established by Moghul Emperor Akbar. King Jahangir in his memos records the following information on Gujrat;

At the time when His Majesty Akbar went to Kashmir, a fort had been built on the bank of that river. Having brought to this fort a body of Gujars who had passed their time in the neighbourhood in thieving and highway robbery, he established them here. As it had become the abode of Gujars, he made it a separate pargana, and gave it the name of Gujrat. "

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. Ghaznvi brought highly learned scholars with him who were appointed as commanders to control the occupied areas.Miran Syed Yahya of Raniwal Syedan belonging to tribes of Tirmaz near Ghaznvi, was appointed Chief Commander of Muslim fighters at Raniwal fort.The fort has decayed with passage of time.Thousands of non Muslims accepted Islam on his hands The Punjab region became predominantlyMuslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. Authentic history commences only in the Lodi period, when Bahlolpur, 23 miles (37 km) north-east of Gujrat, was founded in the reign of Bahlol (1451–89). Khwas Khan, governor of the Rohtas under Sher Shah Suri, founded Khwaspur near Gujrat. The settlement of the tract was completed by Akbar, who built a fort and compelled the Gujars to settle in it. The tract was then named Gujrat and formed into a separate district. Revenue records have been preserved in the families of the hereditary registrars (kanungos), and these exhibit Gujrat the capital of a district containing 2,592 villages, paying a revenue of 11.6 million. In 1605 the famous Saiyid Abdul Kasim received Gujrat as a tuyul or fief from Akbar. On the decay of the Mughal power, Nadir Shah occupied the Gujrat district..The country also suffered at the same time from invasion of Ahmad Shah Durrani, whose armies frequently crossed and recrossed it. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and ruled Gujrat.

British era

In 1846 Gujrat came under the supervision of British officials, when a settlement of land revenue was effected under order from the provisional government at Lahore. Two years later, the District was the scene of some of the battles which decided the even of the second Sikh War. While the siege of Multan still dragged slowly on, Sher Singh established himself at Ramnagar on the Gujrawala side of the Chenab, 22 miles (35 km) below Gujrat, leaving the main body of his army on the northern bank. Here he awaited the attack of the British, who attempted unsuccessfully to drive him across the river, on November 22, 1848. Lord Gough withdrew from the assault with heavy loss ; but sending round a strong detachment under Sir Joseph Thackwell by the Wazirabad ferry, he turned the flank of the enemy, and won the battle of Sadullapur. Sher Singh retired northward, and took up a strong position between the Jhelum and the Pabb Hills. The bloody battle of Chilianwala followed (January 13, 1849) a victory as costly as a defeat. On February 6 Sher Singh again eluded Lord Gough's vigilance, and marched southwards to make a dash upon Lahore; but the British pressed him close in the rear and, on February 22, he turned to offer battle at Gujrat. The decisive engagement which ensued broke irretrievably the power of the Sikh. The Punjab lay at the feet of the conquerors, and passed by annexation under British rule.

Language and demography

 

As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, Majhi dialect of Punjabi is spoken by majority of the district. Punjabi dialects spoken in the district

·         Majhi or Standard (majority)

·         Potohari (Few people near jehlum district)

·         Shah puri dialect (Few people speak this dialect)

Other Languages include:

·         Urdu being national language is spoken and understood.

·         English is also understood and spoken by the sizable educated people.

According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the total population of Gujrat district was 2,048,008 of which 1,026,000 are males and 1,022,000 are females, with a population density of 642 persons per square kilometre. Over 25.62% of the population was recorded as being urban.

Climate and ecology

 

 

Map showing location of Gujrat District (highlighted in green) in relation to neighbouring districts of Punjab Pakistan and the Kashmir region.

This district has moderate climate, which is hot in summer and cold in winter. During peak summer, the day temperature shoots up to 50 °C, but the hot spells are comparatively shorter due to proximity of Azad Kashmir Mountains. The winter months are very pleasant and the minimum temperature may fall below 2 °C. The average rainfall on the Kashmir border is over 1000 mm, at Kharian it is 750 mm, at Gujrat 670 mm, and at Dinga 500 mm.

Administration

The district is administratively subdivided into three tehsils, these are:

1.   Gujrat

2.   Kharian

3.   Sarai Alamgir

Education

District Gujrat has a total of 1,475 government schools at primary and secondary level.Out of these public schools, 60 percent (889 schools) are for girls. According to the latest available data, 323,058 students are enrolled in the public schools while 10,581 teachers are working in these schools.

 

The place of Gujrat is populated since ancient times. Gujrat has very long history of different time spans. Different rulers rule over this agriculturally fertile and geographically well located city. 

History of Gujrat according to Hindu Myths:

Though the name of this city was different in beginning but there was a city present in this place in the times when Hindus were the ruler of this area. And the city was a part of Hindustan of that time. The history of Gujrat is being mainly with old Hindu civilization and the legends of the Hindu mythology.Raja Jay Dharat was the first who ruled Gujrat. After his death there were several Rajas who ruled Gujrat. One of them was Raja Bachan Lal who built   "Ude-Nagri" (which means the city of greeneries and pleasant smells). He married with Rani Gojran. After his death, Rani Gojran becomes the ruler and she renamed this place as "Gujar Nagar" which by the time has now become the Gujrat. 

Alexander the Great Regime:

Whatever, is said above are all the Hindu stories. The main history of Gujrat originates from the days of Alexander the Great. Alexander capturing after Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Babel, reached the territories of south west regions of the India (Now Pakistan Areas) and conquered these areas. He crossed the Jhelum River in the night and defeated Raja Porus in a historical battle. After Alexander's death several others foreign adventurer ruled have also attacked and ruled over Gujrat. After some times Hindus again recaptured Gujrat. 

Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi and Gujrat:

During Sultan Mehmood Gazanvi regime Muslims came to this region and establish First Muslim Government in Gujrat and other Punjab. India was conquered by Muslims, and Ayub Malik was made Governor of Lahore and also the ruler of Gujrat and Punjab. 

Reconstruction of Gujrat in Moughal Empire:

At the time of Moughals Gujrat was included in Moughal Empire. In 1580, when great Moughal EmperorAkbar-e-Azam was passing through Gujrat, he saw the worsening condition of Gujrat and felt pity. So he ordered to reconstruct the city. In those days there were two sects of people, Jats and Gujars, living in the Gujrat. They normally fought with each other. People of Gujrat collected an amount of one and half Lac Rupees. The city of Gujrat was constructed with its all dignity. It remained under Muslim rule till Aurang Zeb Alamgir. 

Sikh Regime and Gujrat:

After the death of Aurang Zeb Alamgir the Mughals began to lose their grip over India and Punjab including Gujrat was conquered by Sikhs. 

British Rule:

After the 1857 war British were became the sole rulers of whole India. This area of Gujrat also became the part of British Indian State. 

After Independence of Pakistan:

With the independence of Pakistan in 1947, city of Gujrat became the part of Pakistan. Gujrat developed in a great way after independence. 

Present Gujrat:

Now the Gujrat is well established and developed district of Punjab Pakistan. Its literacy rate is very high as compare to other regions of Pakistan. It has a leading name in many industrial and agricultural products. The people of Gujrat are well educated, highly skilled and brave. So they are successful in every field.

District Coordination Office, Gujrat.

The first Local District Government/Administration was Established in 1849 under the British regime.

History of District Police:

                                  The system of policing in Mughal India was organized on the basis of land tenure. Zamindars were responsible for apprehending disturbers of the public peace and performing other policing duties. At the level of the village these functions were performed by the village headmen.  In large towns administration of the police was entrusted to functionaries called kotwals who discharged the combined duties of law enforcement, municipal administration and revenue collection. Patrol officers in the shape of village watchmen or patels in villages and peons, horse patrolmen and such other like men in the towns were present. Violent organized crime was usually dealt with by the military.

The British administration relieved the zamindars of their responsibility for police service and introduced magistrates with daroghas and other subordinate officers for Police purposes. The next major change in the organization of police took place in Sindh where Sir Charles Napier drawing inspiration from the Irish constabulary developed a separate and self contained police organization for the province. The Sindh Model was put into effect in Bombay in 1853 and in 1859 in Madras. 

In Punjab, the Police was also organized on the pattern of Sindh but with two main branches, the Military Preventive Police and the Civil Detective Police.  As this arrangement was found unsatisfactory, the Government of India appointed a commission to enquire into whole question of policing in British India in 1860. This Commission recommended the abolition of the military arm of the Police, appointment of an Inspector General of Police in the Province and the placement of Police in a district under the District Superintendent who shall be responsible to the District Magistrate for his duties.  Based on these recommendations, the Government of India submitted a bill which was passed into law as Act V of 1861.  The Police Act of 1861 was adopted by all the provinces except Bombay where a District Police Act was adopted in 1890.  The organizational design that followed the Act survives to this day. Police became a subject to be administered by the provinces that were divided into police jurisdictions corresponding with the districts and the divisions. The police were made exclusively responsible for prevention and detection of crime. In the maintenance of public order they were responsible to the District Magistrate. 

The legal framework of the police under went a major change as a consequence of Devolution of Power Plan introduced through the Punjab Local Government Ordinance 2001. Among other things, the plan called for the introduction of Public accountability of the police.  Accordingly the office of the District Magistrate was abolished in 2001 and a system of Public Safety and Police Complaints Commissions was introduced.  These changes were incorporated into a new Police Law which was promulgated in 2002. Apart from Public Safety Commissions, the Police Order 2002 also provided for oversight functions of the Zilla Nazims, Citizen Police Liaison Committees, increased powers for the Inspector General of Police, organization of police on functional basis and separation of the watch and ward and the Investigation functions of the Police.

District Bar Gujrat(Old):

Established in 1864, District Bar Association Gujrat (Punjab) is one of the oldest Bar Association in Indian Sub-Continent.

District Bar Gujrat(Construction of New Building):

Established in 09 Jan 2015 inauguration by Mr. Justice Sayyed Mazhar Ali Akbar Naqvi, Judge Lahore High Court, Lahore and Khalid Naveed Dar, District & Sessions Judge, Gujrat

 

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